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The History of Penn Wynne Presbyterian Church

©Lisa C. Farrell 2017

The history of a congregation begins with its roots, and the Penn Wynne Presbyterian Church has deep roots. Of the three branches of Presbyterianism that migrated to the colonies from Scotland, the main branch, the Associate Seceder branch, and the Covenanter Reformed branch, Penn Wynne is descended directly from the Associate Seceders and the main branch, although the Reformed and Associate branches merged in 1782 and became the Associate Reformed Church. Some Associate Churches remained separate until a final merger in 1858 when the new denomination became known as the United Presbyterian Church. The current church is the final result of the merger of Eighth United and Fifth United from the Seceder branch of the church, and West Hope Presbyterian and Christ Church from the main branch of the church.

EIGHTH UNITED

The earliest congregation from which Penn Wynne is descended is from the Seceder tradition. It is the Scots Presbyterian Church, not to be confused with another Scots Presbyterian Church in the main denominational branch. In February of 1764 the first pastor, William Marshall began preaching at a hall in Videll’s Alley, used by the Ancient York Masons as a lodge-room.[1]Marshall was educated at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland, and had been an elder in Alexander Moncrief’s church. Moncrief was a founding member of the Seceding Associate Church. The new congregation began meeting in a store and then moved to a frame house on Shippen Street (now Bainbridge). In 1768, Marshall was called to be their pastor. (He became the pastor formally in 1771.) In 1770 they purchased land on the south side of Spruce Street between 3rdand 4thand erected a building in 1771-72. The building and lot on Spruce Street cost between $3900 and $4000. Unfortunately this building no longer exists.

Marshall was a controversial figure, outspoken, opinionated, charismatic and cantankerous. Physically he was “a giant . . . standing six feet three or four inches and a frame correspondingly great—a man with an enormous head, a pale countenance, coal black eyes, speaking in tones of thunder . . .”[2]John Adams attended the church once in 1777 and wrote a revealing letter about his experience.

I have been this afternoon to a place of worship which I never attended before. It is the church of the Scotch seceders. They have a tolerable building—not yet finished; the congregation is not large and the people are not very genteel. . . . The clergyman who officiates is a Mr. Marshall, a giant in body and mind, a native of Scotland, whose speech is yet thick and broad, although he has officiated in this place nearly ten years. By his prayer he is evidently an ardent patriot, from which I conclude that most of his congregation are, too, because I generally suppose that the minister will, in a short time, bring people to his way of thinking, or they will bring him to theirs, or else there will be separation. . . . After service the minister read a long paper which he called ‘An act of the Presbytery of Pennsylvania, appointing a fast,’ which is to be kept next Thursday. He is as orthodox in politics as he is pious and zealous in points of religion.[3]

William Marshall was a “patriot,” a supporter of the Revolutionary War. When the British occupied Philadelphia in 1777 he (along with other revolutionaries in the congregation) left town. In his absence Hessian troops took over the church for use as a hospital. They destroyed the pews, broke windows and did other damage. (Old Pine Presbyterian Church suffered the same abuse.) Conflict erupted in the congregation in 1778 and 1789 when the British abandoned Philadelphia for New York and the patriot contingent came back. They accused those who stayed behind of being Tories and wanted to refuse them communion.

The Reformed Presbyterian Church (Covenanter origin) and the Associate Presbyterian Church (seceders) merged in 1782 to form the Associate Reformed Presbytery of Philadelphia.[4]At that point the First Associate Scots Church became the First Associate Reformed Church (Scots) on Spruce Street above Third Street. The leader of the Associate dissidents opposed to the 1782 merger of Associate and Reformed Churches, was none other than William Marshall himself. M’Cullough comments of Marshall and his elders, “ . . . he knowing their disposition, harmony between him and them was marred, mutual jealousies took place, animosities encreased (sic), and at length it came to an open rupture.”[5]He was forced out by his Session, and “restrained from entering building.”[6]A long court case ensued that became the talk of Philadelphia. Marshall ultimately lost the case and the building in 1790 but won in the court of public opinion. He was approached by “several gentlemen” who funded the building of a new church, the First Associate Presbyterian Church on Walnut and 4thStreets. Unfortunately that building also no longer exists.

Marshalls’ congregation enjoyed a period of stability before undergoing a further schism in 1845. They left the Associate Church under the leadership of another fiery minister, Rev. Chauncy Webster. This schismatic group (from which we are descended) then lost their building. Yes, there is a trend here. They formed a tiny short-lived denomination called the Independent Associate Presbytery of Philadelphia with a total of three pastors. After several temporary migrations they built a church on the corner of Shippen Street (now Bainbridge) and Florida Street  (now Marvine).[7]The building no longer exists. A few years later Chauncy decided he had made a mistake and applied for readmission to his former denomination, creating an untenable situation for the congregation who dismissed him.

While all of this turmoil was taking place within the congregation, a union between the Associate Church and the Associate Reform Church took place in 1858. The new denomination was called the United Presbyterian Church. On July 6, 1858, the Session of the church asked to be received into this newly formed denomination. The first name used was the Shippen Street Church. It was later chartered under the name the Eighth United Presbyterian Church. In July of 1859 they called the Rev. W.W. Barr. Barr describes himself as “then a young man, without experience, having been licensed only a little more than a year.”[8]It was Barr, however, who restored stability and prosperity to the congregation under a long pastorate.  Under his ministry 622 were added to the rolls. He was active both locally and nationally. Among his wider activities:

  1. He was a leader in the Evangelical Alliance, which also worked in favor of Prohibition
  2. Exercised a large leadership role in the Presbytery as a whole.
  3. Member of anti-music party of the United Presbyterian Church
  4. Leader in opposing Secret Societies
  5. Served on the Foreign Missions Board
  6. Membership in the Anti-vivisection Society
  7. Active in numerous appeals at the level of local government concerning Sabbath observance.
  8. Appealed to the federal government in opposition to Postal workers having to work on Sundays.
  9. Appealed to the federal government against quotas and restrictions on immigration of Chinese persons, traveling to Washington, DC in person.

 

Under Barr the congregation built a new church on 15thand Christian Streets in 1883. That building still exists and is now the home of the Ebenezer Seventh Day Adventist Church.

Barr retired in 1895. The next pastor, Rev. John Hunter Webster, managed to hold the congregation together but unfortunately they were becoming entrenched in their ways and inflexible. Eldership was for life, and the rigidity in leadership proved deadly. When Webster left to become a professor at Xenia Theological Seminary (now Pittsburgh Theological Seminary) in 1908 the congregation was in serious financial trouble. The last called pastor was a young man named Thomas Jamieson. Conflict, infighting and resignations of key leaders reduced the congregation to a handful of people. On January 12, 1919, the Eighth United Church, such as it was, formally united with Fifth United Church under the Fifth Church name. All proceeds from the sale of the Eighth Church building went to the Fifth Church after the debts were paid.[9]At the last meeting of the Eighth United Presbyterian Church, there were sixteen members left.

FIFTH UNITED

The Fifth United Presbyterian Church began life as the Third Associate Reformed Church, organized by the Associate Reformed Presbytery of Philadelphia in March of 1848. The work of forming a new congregation began in the summer of 1847, by the pastor and some of the members of the First Associate Reformed Church, at that time located at Thirteenth Street above Market. The first meeting for the new congregation was held, “on the second floor of a small house off Twenty-second Street above Callowhill.”[10]The first pastor was Rev. D.T. Carnahan, installed on June 1, 1848.

It might reasonably be argued that this congregation was ill-fated from its inception.  In February of 1854, the congregation met in the basement of the new church while it was still under construction. The location at the time was described as being on Schuylkill Third Street (now 20thStreet) between Hamilton and Fairview Streets.[11]The name Fairview was changed to Buttonwood in 1858. The object of the meeting was to “superintend the introduction of gas into the basement. Heating of the basement was “superintended” in March while plastering was being done.”[12]On the very morning that the congregation was to worship in their new church, tragedy struck. It burned to the ground. Logically, one might conclude that the introduction of gas was the culprit. A meeting of the Session gathered in the home of Rev. Robert Armstrong on April 3, 1854. Three of the men were authorized to contact the Franklin Fire Insurance Company to let them know that the church was destroyed by fire, “yesterday (Sabbath) morning, on April 2, 1854.”[13]The situation was about to get even worse, however. The building was underinsured to the tune of $3000. Did they give up? No. They rebuilt. But they never seemed to be able to get out of debt from that point forward.

In 1858 the denominational merger between the Associate Church and the Associate Reformed Church led to Third Associate becoming Fifth United. This congregation made the same denominational transition as Eighth United, and the two were now in the same Presbytery. But chronic instability plagued Fifth United. For the next 30 years they were unable to keep a pastor for any length of time because they could not offer a reasonable salary. They rented part of the building to the Philadelphia School Board. They argued over pew rents.  And the Presbytery had to intervene several times, first in 1878 and again in 1889. Rev. Barr from Eighth United was the Presbytery representative who sought to help them. Several attempts at relocation began in 1896. The congregation seemed unwilling or unable to change, so they tried to change their external environment. This was a Scots-Irish congregation, and the neighborhoods kept changing. In a huge gamble in 1904 the congregation moved to 56thand Wyalusing with Presbytery help. Because they were in such crisis, the Presbytery was able to step in and replace the entire Session, which brought more flexibility to bear. Miraculously, for a short time, things turned around. They grew. They built a beautiful new church in 1915, now the Camphor United Methodist Church. Membership was at 371. During these years they absorbed the once successful Eighth United. They managed to keep a pastor, Rev. Burnside, for 21 years. But when Burnside left, the tide turned again. The neighborhood changed. They could not adapt. Within 13 years of its construction, the building was up for sale.

The final move came in 1944. The new building was to be on Haverford Road in Wynnewood. The construction was strongly objected to by the other larger branch of Presbyterians who argued that there was not room for two Presbyterian churches so close together—literally blocks apart. The building went ahead anyway, and Fifth United moved to the suburbs bringing a greatly reduced congregation with them. They changed their name informally although not legally to the Wynnewood United Presbyterian Church. The last pastor prior to the final merger in 1975 was Rev. Russell Doherty. The building is now the home of the Armenian Catholic Church.

THE MAIN BRANCH

THE WEST HOPE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH

On the other side of the Presbyterian aisle was the largest branch of Presbyterians, who had their own internal battles. In the 19thcentury “Old School” conservatives clung to the Westminster Confession and “New School” evangelicals who wanted to get out there and tell people about Jesus. West Hope Presbyterian came from the New School. It began as a Sunday School outreach of the First Presbyterian Church of Mantua in West Philadelphia in 1861. It was called Zion Mission. The timing, on the brink of the Civil War, was less than auspicious. The first pastor, Rev. Llewellyn Pratt D.D. was pastor of Zion Mission for only one year. For a number of years pastorates were short-lived due to financial struggles and the inability to pay a living wage. In 1866, with the war over, they hired a full-time pastor and added a small wing to the main building at a cost of $700. It was used for Evening Services and as an Infant School Room during morning services.[14]In 1862, the congregation received its official charter from the Third Presbytery, New School, and was renamed the Second Presbyterian Church of Mantua.

The congregation struggled to its feet. Mantua was primarily a working-class area in the midst of a post-Civil War recession. By 1873 the church had very little money. It was the beginning of the Long Depression, an economic crisis that prior to the Great Depression had been called the Great Depression. They were also extremely overcrowded. While the congregation may not have been large, the Sabbath School was. The statistical report to Presbytery in 1875 denotes a church membership of 83 and a Sabbath School membership of 280. [15]  On June 30, 1871 a new property was offered to the congregation at Preston and Aspen Streets by W.E. Tenbrook, Esq. Tenbrook was not a member. He was a well-to-do Presbyterian involved in denominational work. He served as Treasurer for The Presbyterian House, Office of the General Assembly.[16]  The offer was accepted on July 11, 1871. It was a valuable corner lot. On June 30, 1874, existing plans for a new building on the site of Preston and Aspen were abandoned in favor of less expensive one-story building. It was agreed to sell the present chapel located on the north side of Lancaster Avenue west of Forty-first Street. The congregation was assured that the new building could be erected “at a cost not exceeding $20,000 including all outlay except for seating and gas fixtures.”[17]The cornerstone of the new building was laid on November 2, 1874.

Finances continued to plague the congregation. An attempt to reduce the salary of the pastor, Rev. Thompson, by $500, proved to be explosive. Thompson was not prepared to go along. Behind the financial crisis was a power struggle between him and key members of the church leadership. A very public battle between pastor and the trustees took place that tore the congregation apart and brought about the resignation of six founding members of the congregation, including the secretary, Wilbert H. Harned, who initially refused to surrender the Charter and books. The conflict even spread into the public arena with accusations of financial misconduct being made against Rev. Thompson. Thompson was eventually cleared.

The men who were forced out were not peripheral to the Church. This was a power struggle right at the heart of congregational life. While we can only infer from the evidence we have, it appears that Rev. Thompson favored a dictatorial style of leadership. When dealing with other strong personalities he was unyielding. The result of this clash of wills was incredibly destructive. Thompson left in 1882 after a tumultuous nine years, leaving a very depleted congregation behind.

Fortunately for the congregation the pastors that followed Thompson were not of his ilk. As the economy slowly struggled to its feet, so did the Second Presbyterian Church of Mantua. As part of the October 25, 1887 Annual Congregational Meeting, the congregation were told that the current value of the church building and property together was about  $30,000. The building had lost value in the current economic climate. The land on which the church stood constituted $15,000 of what it was worth. A mortgage of $8,200 remained.[18]Efforts to clear the mortgage continued in earnest. By October 22, 1888, it stood at $5500.[19]

In 1887 under the ministry of Rev. W. H. McCaughey the elders were introduced to the rotary system of three elders serving three years and rotating off. With a total of six at the time it meant a fairly consistent changeover in the leadership. The “Young People’s Society of Christian Endeavor” for teenagers was also organized in that year.[20]By 1890, McCaughey was given a raise. His salary was now $1750.[21]On Tuesday evening, June 10, “in the Chapel, then the Church, in the presence of a large congregation, a $10,000 mortgage, which had hung, like a pall, over the congregation for sixteen long years, was burned.”[22]Before the mortgage had even been paid off, however, the Trustees were discussing the need for a new, larger building. Four different architects had been asked to submit plans in December of 1889. At the Annual Congregational Meeting of June 18, 1890, literally eight days after paying off the former mortgage and being debt free, the congregation was ready to take on more debt. They decided to put in foundations for a main audience room, and to extend the present building to the Preston Street line at a cost of no more than $7000. An addition that was to eventually connect with the new building was also constructed. It contained the north vestibule, hall, library room and Ladies Parlor.[23]

Fundraising for the new church proceeded slowly at first, with aid being sought from other congregations in the Presbytery. In 1891, the front of the chapel (the existing church building) was cleverly remodeled to conform in appearance to the projected new church building.[24]The amount of money needed to build the new church was daunting, however. On December 19, 1891, at a Special Meeting of the Trustees, Messrs. Scott, Shedwick and Hall “on behalf of John Hope made the following proposition, that he (Mr. Hope) would contribute $4000 if the congregation would raise an additional $10,000 for the building of the new Church.” Hope was apparently a member of the congregation. Needless to say, the proposition was accepted.On May 7, 1892, the corner stone was laid “with imposing ceremonies.” The name of the church was officially changed from the Second Presbyterian Church of Mantua to West Hope Presbyterian Church, in honor of John Hope.

Rev. McCaughey left in 1900, to be replaced by Dr. Charles Bronson D.D., easily the most beloved pastor West Hope ever had. When Bronson arrived in 1900 he had a congregation of 899 and a burden of “a large mortgage indebtedness.”[25] Bronson believed that this debt was “detrimental to the free spiritual work of the Church.” When he arrived the total debt was $34,536.77.[26]Bronson did what no pastor before him managed to do. He convinced the congregation to give. They paid off the debt in chunks. By 1903, it was $21,750. By 1908, it was $8100. On June 1, 1910, the last payment was made. The impossible had been done. The debt was cleared.

During the pastorate of Dr. Bronson by “examination” or by “confession of faith” 1,255 new members were added, and by transfer of letter another 689, making for a grand total of 1,994. But during the same time period the church lost 903 members through letters of dismissal and death. The “high water mark” so to speak, was 1091 members, a total net increase of 192.

On April 6, 1917, the United States formally entered the Great War by declaring war on Germany. Between 1917 and 1918 a steady stream of young men from the congregation entered the armed forces to fight in the Great War. The final total membership that enlisted was 155, with five casualties. The Bronze Memorial Tablet dedicated in their honor is now in the Penn Wynne Presbyterian Church.

Dr. Bronson resigned for reasons of health in 1922. He was replaced by the highly evangelistic Dr. Howard J. Bell, who navigated the congregation through the crash of Wall Street in 1929. The Emergency Committee of the Deacons worked constantly throughout the Depression. They consistently paid rent for those facing eviction. They bought coal. They bought groceries. In later years they paid electricity bills. They bought eyeglasses and bandages. In one remarkable case, they helped a widow keep her home.[27]

Bell left in 1932. By the time Bell’s pastorate ended, Mantua was increasingly ethnically and racially diverse. Asians, African Americans and Caucasians all lived in the neighborhood.  The children of the congregation easily and happily had best friends of other races, but some of the adults may have been less happy. Ninety-six year old church member Ruth Delphey remembers her mother being strongly opposed to racism, stating that she didn’t see why people made such a fuss about skin color. Churches, however, including West Hope, continued to be entirely segregated.

McCabe Johnson was installed as the next pastor in 1932. His commitment to the congregation appears mixed. He did not live in the neighborhood, preferring to move to the suburbs, fascinatingly enough, in Penn Wynne. At the beginning of McCabe Johnson’s pastorate, the membership stood at 1225 and the Sunday School at 497. When he left on July 1, 1940, the congregation was a shadow of its former self. When Rev. Philip H. Austin began his ministry on February 21, 1941,[28]membership had fallen far from the heights of 1225 to 360.[29]It must have been devastating for the congregation to go from 1225 to 360 in eleven years. McCabe Johnson may have been blamed for the decline, but circumstances were far more complex. This trend was happening across the board in city churches, and Mantua was one of the first regions to deteriorate. Austin left in 1944. From that point on, the Church had only supply pastors as they struggled with what to do next. Clerk of Session H. LeRoy Parke helped steer the congregation through the crisis before them and negotiated their eventual merger with Christ Church in Penn Wynne.

CHRIST CHURCH

Christ Church

By 1927, the firm of McWilliams and Maloney had laid out most of Penn Wynne’s streets and built the first 200 homes. There was no church in the area, but the pastor of Calvin Presbyterian Church, Dr. Edward Jordan, lived on Sheffield Lane in Overbrook Hills (Penn Wynne.) Jordan formed an Organizing Committee of about a dozen men, which met on the first Wednesday of each month in his home. The church, although originally non-denominational, soon allied itself with the Presbyterian denomination as a result of a census taken of the community, which found it to contain a predominance of Presbyterians. Right in the midst of the development was the old McWilliams and Maloney Company’s carpenter shop. It was John Williams, a local coal merchant who lived in the home on the corner across the street from the carpenter shop on Manoa and Haverford Roads, who made the venture possible by purchasing the building to be converted into a church. The property and structure cost $17,500.

The first morning worship was held on October 2, 1932. By 1933, Rev. H. Paul Janes was called as a part-time minister. Church attendance went from 55 to 67, and the Sunday School averaged between 140 and 160. Howard D. Rosengarten became the Sunday School Superintendent. Janes was Pastor from April 6, 1934 to April 15, 1936. It was a daunting time to found a new church. The first Sunday evening service was held in November of 1935, with an attendance of 31 and a collection of $12. According to the Session Meeting of December 3, 1935, the membership was at 175, “some having moved from the community and others resigning.”[30]Clearly founding a church was hard work, and then as now people became discouraged and disaffected. The congregation was formally incorporated on December 9, 1935.

September 13, 1936 was the first Sunday service conducted by Rev. Walter Bruggeman,[31]although he was not actually formally installed until October 6.[32]He was given a salary of $1800 plus living quarters, and payment into a pension plan of $165.[33]

Early in 1946, Rev. Walter Bruggeman announced that he was resigning in order to join the Navy Chaplains Corps, effective March 10, 1946. He had served the church for ten years. Harold Faust was installed as the new pastor on September 12, 1946. With Harold came Amy, and the congregation was blessed with a uniquely talented duo. Amy Deck Faust was an ordained minister who had served as minister of the Unionville Presbyterian Church during the War. She also held a master’s degree in television from Temple University.

The Fausts were public relations geniuses. They were up on all the latest technology in television, radio and the creation of promotional literature, which Harold Faust did most of the writing for. They put Christ Church, soon to become Christ-West Hope Church, on the map. Under the Fausts the new building campaign took off. The architect was member Clarence Langzettel. The need for funds was solved in part by the needs of a congregation in West Philadelphia. Trustees Minutes indicate that a joint meeting of the Boards of Trustees of West Hope Church and Christ Church was held on May 12 at West Hope. The decision was made to merge at that time.The “Corner Stone Laying” took place on September 19, 1948, with 300 attending. The new congregation was named Christ West Hope.

Thanks to the efforts of Harold Faust in coordinating with Representative Samuel McConnell, a member of the church, the Governor of Pennsylvania was involved in the dedication of Christ-West Hope, speaking at the church the evening prior to the ceremony. Duff spoke to a congregation of 300 in the church.

The Fausts were not at the church long, but their impact was immense. They were followed in 1952 by the popular Rev. J.Milton Bell, who continued a whirlwind style of ministry. At the time of his arrival, the church built by Harold and Amy Faust was large. There were now 24 members of the Deacons Board, two of which were women. There were also 24 members of Session, and two additional honorary members of Session, all male.

Session minutes of the 1950s reflect a busy congregation, active and growing with apparently no serious problems. By the mid-to-late fifties at every Session Meeting the minutes included long lists of new members joining the church. But while numbers increased, participation did not. On special Sundays during the seasons of Christmas and Easter the church was packed so full that chairs had to be put out. On normal Sundays, the building, which seated 278, was not quite full. On average somewhere between 150 to 200 people attended church. On January 3, 1960, Rev. Bell announced he was resigning and accepting an offer from Central-Brick Presbyterian Church of East Orange, New Jersey. He was thanked for his seven years of “indefatigable energy.”[34]

It takes years to build a successful ministry and strong congregation. It takes a very short period of time to destroy one. The short-lived two-year ministry of George Laird Hunt achieved that. Hunt came in 1960 and left in 1962. He was autocratic in style, did not listen to the Session, rejected Nominating Committee selections and put his own people in instead, tried to dismiss the church secretary and choir director as incompetent, harbored grudges and made veiled references to people he disliked in his sermons. The last straw came when he denied the virgin birth. The collision was a direct hit, with Session pitted against pastor. The Session prevailed, but by the time Hunt left the congregation had been split in half. People abandoned Christ West Hope in droves. The following pastorates of Rev. Robert Browne and Rev. Don Bitzer did nothing to halt the decline. Donald Bitzer left Christ-West Hope to take a call at the Langhorne Presbyterian Church in 1973. A year later, under an interim minister pastor, the church rolls were at 213.[35]Charles Bridgman, Clerk of Session, was working hard at that point to unite Christ-West Hope and Wynnewood United under Wynnewood’s pastor, Rev. Russell Doherty, at the Christ-West Hope site. The merger finally took place in 1975.

The congregation continued to steadily decline under Rev. Doherty’s ministry and under the next pastor, Rev. Jim Horn. When Horn left in 1993 the Presbytery suggested merger or closure. The tiny congregation of 59 members, only 25 of whom were active, refused. They wanted one last chance. In September of 1995 they called their first woman minister, the Rev. Lisa C. Farrell. The decline stopped, but the rebuilding progress has been slow.

The make-up of the current congregation is the most diverse in the church’s history. It is now a multi-racial, multi-ethnic congregation. It has moved from theologically conservative to theologically progressive and now welcomes LGBTQ members. There is an active Youth Fellowship, and a Sunday School. We have small group bible studies and neighborhood outreach events. We are a loving congregation that seeks to be flexible and adaptable to the changing world we find ourselves in.  The only thing that stays the same is change.

[1]J. Thomas Scharf and Thompson Westcott. History of Philadelphia, 1609-1884,Vol. 2. (Philadelphia: L.H. Everts & Company, 1884),1269.

[2]W.J.B. Edgar, Historical Sketch of the First United Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia, A Sermon Preached by the Pastor, Re. W.J.B. Edgar on Oct. 12, 1902, (Philadelphia: Collins & Co., 1903), 16.

[3]W.J.B. Edgar, Historical Sketch of the First United Presbyterian Church of Philadelphia, A Sermon Preached by the Pastor, Re. W.J.B. Edgar on Oct. 12, 1902, (Philadelphia: Collins & Co., 1903), 14.

[4]Kenneth A. Hammonds, Historical Directory of Presbyterian Churches and Presbyteries of Greater Philadelphia(Philadelphia, PA: Presbyterian Historical Society, 1993), 30.

[5]John M’Cullough, John, 1754-1824. “Memoirs of the late Rev. William Marshall, pastor of the Associate congregation in Philadelphia.” (Published by M’Cullough, 1806), 24.

[6]Kenneth A. Hammonds, Historical Directory of Presbyterian Churches and Presbyteries of Greater Philadelphia(Philadelphia, PA: Presbyterian Historical Society, 1993), 207.

[7]W.W. Barr, “Historical Sketch of the Eighth United Presbyterian Church Presented by the Pastor, Rev. W.W. Barr D.D.” July 9, 1876, 5.

[8]W.W. Barr, “Historical Sketch of the Eighth United Presbyterian Church Presented by the Pastor, Rev. W.W. Barr D.D.” July 9, 1876, 5.

[9]Eighth United Presbyterian Church Minutes, “Annual Congregational Meetings, January 5, 1880 – January 30, 1919,” January 30, 1919, Church Archives.

[10]“Third Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church Trustee Meeting Minutes, “Minutes of the Trustees of the Third Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church (includes Charter, Congregational Minutes, and Trustees Minutes of the Fifth United Presbyterian Church bound together), 1853 – 1857,” May 2, 1853, Church Archives.

[11]Ibid., February 3, 1854.

[12]Ibid., March 3, 1854.

[13]Ibid., April 3, 1854.

[14]Second Presbyterian Church of Mantua, “Minute Book, Board of Trustees, 1860 – 1880,” December 7, 1866, Church Archives.

[15]West Hope Presbyterian Church Directories, “Milestones in Our History,” in “March 1905 Directory,” Church Archives.

[16]Presbyterian Historical Society, The Presbyterian Monthly Record. (Jan. – Dec. 1879)

<http://archive.org/details/presmon30pres> (accessed January 28, 2013) andPresbyterian Historical Society, The Presbyterian Monthly Record. (Jan. – Dec. 1881)<http://archive.org/details/presmon32pres> (accessed January 28, 2013).

[17]Second Presbyterian Church of Mantua, “Minute Book, Board of Trustees, 1860 – 1880,” August 17, 1874, Church Archives.

[18]Second Presbyterian Church of Mantua, “Minute Book, Annual Congregational Meetings, 1883—1897,” October 25, 1887, Church Archives.

[19]Second Presbyterian Church of Mantua, “Minute Book, Board of Trustees, 1880-1893,” October 22, 1888, Church Archives.

[20]West Hope Presbyterian Church Directories, “Milestones in our History,” in “Directory of 1915.”

[21]Second Presbyterian Church of Mantua, “Minute Book, Annual Congregational Meetings, 1883—1897,” October 28, 1890, Church Archives.

[22]West Hope Presbyterian Church Directories, “Milestones in our History,” in “Directory of 1915.” Church Archives. Additional information found in West Hope Presbyterian Church, “Church History” in “Golden Jubilee Program, 1864-1914,” Church Archives.

[23]Second Presbyterian Church of Mantua, “Minute Book, Annual Congregational Meetings, 1883—1897,” Church Archives, and “Milestones In Our History” in “Directory of, 1915,” Church Archives.

[24]West Hope Presbyterian Church  Publications, “Church History” in “Golden Jubilee Program, 1864-1914,” Church Archives.

[25]West Hope Presbyterian Church Publications, “The Seventeenth Anniversary of the Pastorate of Rev. Charles E. Bronson, D.D.,” June 7, 1917, 13, Church Archives.

[26]Ibid.

[27]West Hope Presbyterian Church Correspondence, John J. Stevens to Charles A. Baker, February 23, 1933, included in “Minutes of the Deacons,1920-1937,” Church Archives.

[28]Ibid.

            [29]West Hope Presbyterian Church, “Minute Book, Session of the West Hope Presbyterian Church, 1943-1948,” February 1941, Church Archives.

[30]Ibid., December 3, 1935.

[31]Christ Church Church Program, First Sunday with New Pastor Rev. Walter Bruggeman,  September 13, 1936, Church Archives.

[32]Christ Church Session Minutes, “Organizational Committee and Session Minutes of Christ Church, 1931—1946,” October 12, 1936,Church Archives.

[33]Christ Church Correspondence, Samuel K. McConnell, Jr., Results of Every Member Canvass Committee, to Members of Christ Church, March 23, 1936, Church Archives.

[34]Christ-West Hope Church Session Meeting Minutes, “Session Minutes and Congregational Meeting Minutes of Christ-West Hope, 1960 – 1962,” January 3, 1960, Church Archives.

[35]Christ-West Hope Church, “Session Minutes,” October 23, 1974, Church Archives.